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"Hidup Memerlukan Seribu Pengorbanan"

Monday, July 7, 2014

MODELLING THINKING FROM THE LIFE OF PROPHET MUHAMMAD (BATTLE OF THE TRENCH)

2.0 HISTORY THE BATTLE OF TRENCH
The Battle of the Trench (Arabic: غزوة الخندقtranslit.: Ghazwah al-Khandaq) also known as the Battle of the Confederates (Arabic: غزوة الاحزابtranslit.: Ghazwah al-Ahzab). The battle is named after the khandaq (Arabic الخندق) that was dug by Muslims in preparation for the battle. The word khandaq is the Arabic form of the Persian word kandak meaning "That which has been dug". For this reason the word "trench" could be replaced with "ditch". It may also be referred to by its original Arabic name "khandaq".[1] This battle was a fortnight-long siege of Yathrib (now Medina) by Arab and Jewish tribes. The strength of the confederate armies is estimated around 10,000 men with six hundred horses and some camels, while the Medinan defenders numbered 3,000. The battle began on March 31, 627. The war called as the Battle of the Trench because, Islamic armies were digging the trench around the city of Medina to prevent the enemies from attack the Medina. Besides that, the battle also known as the Battle of Confederates because, this battle gather many tribes who were allied to attack the Medina.[2]
            The largely out numbered defenders of Medina, mainly Muslims led by Islamic prophet Muhammad, dug a trench, which together with Medina's natural fortifications, rendered the confederate cavalry (consisting of horses and camels) useless, locking the two sides in a stalemate. Hoping to make several attacks at once, the confederates persuaded the Medina-allied Banu Qurayza to attack the city from the south.[3] However, Muhammad's diplomacy derailed the negotiations, and broke up the confederacy against him. The well-organized defenders, the sinking of confederate morale, and poor weather conditions caused the siege to end in a fiasco. The siege was a "battle of wits", in which the Muslims tactically overcame their opponents while suffering very few casualties. Efforts to defeat the Muslims failed, and Islam became influential in the region. As a consequence, the Muslim army besieged the neighbourhood of the Banu Qurayza tribe, leading to their unconditional surrender. The defeat caused the Meccans to lose their trade and much of their prestige.[4]
            Due to the amount of enemies that come in large numbers, the Prophet had discussed with other companions for the best way to overcome the enemies.[5] The best idea to dig the Trench came from Salmān al-Fārsi (Salman the Persian) was accepted as the best strategy to win the battle. Salman suggested to dig the Trench in the northern part of Medina. In the other parts around the Medina filled with the mountains and gardens of palms which will make it difficult for the enemies from entering the city of Medina. As expected upon completion of the ditch, the Quraish together with the Mecca idolaters appeared infront of the trench. They tried to escape from the Trench but were not successful. According to the limited war, both of parties just release of the arrow for each others. In the tense situation, Bani Quraiza was agitated by Huyai bin Akhtab to against residential areas in Medina which are inhabited by children and women only. They had broken their promise with the Prophet. Some of Jews infiltrated to the behind the Medina but it failed because Shafiyyah binti Abdul Mutalib was killed them. This causes the Bani Quraiza felt afraid and felt the preparations made by the Prophet very carefully. After the Prophet knowing the news, he planned to separate the armies into two groups, the armies for the first line and the armies for the back line. However, the companions disapproved with Prophet’s idea.[6]
            Blessings to the help from God, God facilitate Nu’im (a member of the Battle of Trench) to ripped Bani Quraiza and Bani Quraish, demoralize them to fight, down the hurricanes to destructive their camping area, smuggle fear and there is no unity between them. After God given down various tests, finally the enemies surrendered. This war does not lead to the profit and loss but it is purely neurological war. There is no great battle between the two sides.[7]

3.0 SOURCES THE BATTLE OF TRENCH
The Qur’an uses the term confederates (Arabic الاحزاب)  in surah Al-Ahzab to denote the confederacy of pagans and Jews against Islam. Verses associated with the story of the battle of the Trench from verse 9 until 27 ;
ü  9. O you who believe! Remember Allah's Favour to you, when there came against you hosts, and We sent against them a wind and forces that you saw not [i.e. troops of angels during the battle of Al-Ahzab (the Confederates)]. And Allah is Ever All-Seer of what you do.[8]
ü  10. When they came upon you from above you and from below you, and when the eyes grew wild and the hearts reached to the throats, and you were harbouring doubts about Allah.
ü  11. There, the believers were tried and shaken with a mighty shaking.
ü  12. And when the hypocrites and those in whose hearts is a disease (of doubts) said: "Allah and His Messenger  promised us nothing but delusions!"
ü  13. And when a party of them said: "O people of Yathrib (Al-Madinah)! There is no stand (possible) for you (against the enemy attack!) Therefore go back!" And a band of them ask for permission of the Prophet saying: "Truly, our homes lie open (to the enemy)." And they lay not open. They but wished to flee.
ü  14. And if the enemy had entered from all sides (of the city), and they had been exhorted to Al-Fitnah (i.e. to renegade from Islam to polytheism) they would surely have committed it and would have hesitated thereupon but little.
ü  15. And indeed they had already made a covenant with Allah not to turn their backs, and a covenant with Allah must be answered for.
ü  16. Say (O Muhammad to these hypocrites who ask your permission to run away from you): "Flight will not avail you if you flee from death or killing, and then you will enjoy no more than a little while!"
ü  17. Say: "Who is he who can protect you from Allah if He intends to harm you, or intends mercy on you?" And they will not find, besides Allah, for themselves anyWali (protector, supporter, etc.) or any helper.
ü  18. Allah already knows those among you who keep back (men) from fighting in Allah's Cause, and those who say to their brethren "Come here towards us," while they (themselves) come not to the battle except a little.[9]
ü  19. Being miserly towards you (as regards help and aid in Allah's Cause). Then when fear comes, you will see them looking to you, their eyes revolving like (those of) one over whom hovers death, but when the fear departs, they will smite you with sharp tongues, miserly towards (spending anything in any) good (and only covetous of booty and wealth). Such have not believed. Therefore Allah makes their deeds fruitless, and that is ever easy for Allah.
ü  20. They think that Al-Ahzab (the Confederates) have not yet withdrawn, and if Al-Ahzab (the Confederates) should come (again), they would wish they were in the deserts (wandering) among the bedouins, seeking news about you (from a far place); and if they (happen) to be among you, they would not fight but little.
ü  21. Indeed in the Messenger of Allah (Muhammad) you have a good example to follow for him who hopes in (the Meeting with) Allah and the Last Day and remembers Allah much.
ü  22. And when the believers saw Al-Ahzab (the Confederates), they said: "This is what Allah and His Messenger (Muhammad) had promised us, and Allah and His Messenger (Muhammad) had spoken the truth, and it only added to their faith and to their submissiveness (to Allah).
ü  23. Among the believers are men who have been true to their covenant with Allah [i.e. they have gone out for Jihad (holy fighting), and showed not their backs to the disbelievers], of them some have fulfilled their obligations (i.e. have been martyred), and some of them are still waiting, but they have never changed [i.e.they never proved treacherous to their covenant which they concluded with Allah] in the least.
ü  24. That Allah may reward the men of truth for their truth (i.e. for their patience at the accomplishment of that which they covenanted with Allah), and punish the hypocrites if He will or accept their repentance by turning to them in Mercy. Verily, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.
ü  25. And Allah drove back those who disbelieved in their rage, they gained no advantage (booty, etc.). Allah sufficed for the believers in the fighting (by sending against the disbelievers a severe wind and troops of angels). And Allah is Ever All-Strong, All-Mighty.
ü  26. And those of the people of the Scripture who backed them (the disbelievers) Allah brought them down from their forts and cast terror into their hearts, (so that) a group (of them) you killed, and a group (of them) you made captives.
ü  27. And He caused you to inherit their lands, and their houses, and their riches, and a land which you had not trodden (before). And Allah is Able to do all things.[10]

4.0 THE PROBLEM OR ISSUE OF THE SIRAH
According to this sirah, the main issue is about how to win the battle with a large number of enemies. This story tells about the wisdom of doing solution to problems that require immediate decision. Through this event, it shows the attitude of the leaders in doing a big decision in a problem and how he received the proposals and suggestions of members.

5.0 THINKING STYLE
The thinking style which was used in this problem are objective thinking style and rational thinking style.[11] Both methods of thinking is applied in this event. Back to the events of the Trench war, Muslims at the time having difficulties with the slightly number of army. As the best solution, they agreed to dug a big Trench as their defensive. Objectively, they dug a Trench to defeat the enemies. For rationally, they dug a Trench because of the large number of enemies. It will be the main cause of their defeat if only survive with existing military due to the large number of enemies.

6.0 PROBLEM SOLVING
Based on this sirah, the problem solving through several stages which known as seven steps approach to problem solving.[12] They started to identified the problem which is the problem based on this sirah is about the deficiency of Trench wa’s army to confront the enemies. Then, they tried to find the best way to overcome the problem through dug a big Trench. Finally, the evaluation of the solution which is the troops of Trench had defeated their enemies caused by the idea of ​​digging a large Trench.

7.0 DECISION MAKING
According to this problem, the decision making was being used by decisions of majority. This is one of way for analytical and conceptual decision making.[13] Through to this event, the Prophet had a discussion with sahabat about the best way to outdo the enemies. Salman al-Farisi then proposed to dug a big trench in six days. The proposal from Salman was accepted and it was regarded as a good suggestion because of the slightly in number of army. Through this event, analytical means when the leader does not possess sufficient information to make an effective decision, they will need to obtain information or skill from others. But it does not mean that the Prophet did not have any suggestion. He wanted to get suggestions from the rest. These events shows the Prophet and other companions had accepted the recommendation from Salman based on the reasons they have analyzed. However for the conceptual, The Prophet explains the situation to the group or individuals whom he provides with relevant information, and together they generate and evaluate many possible solutions. According to this sirah, the Prophet had a discussion with sahabat to decide the best way to win the battle of Khandak concerning to the amount of army.

8.0 HOW IS THIS CASE REFLECTIVE OF THINKING IN TODAY COMPETITIVE WORLD
The challenges of life today, we must always make the stories of the Prophet and sahabats’ as a guide. When we make the story of the Prophet's and sahabats’ as a guide to life, then we will not get lost because it is a complete guide. Through the story battle of the Trench, we should emulate the Prophet's attitude and the attitude of the sahabat. Firstly, through to this story, the attitude shown by the Prophet is open-minded. As the evidence, even though he is a leader during the battle of Tranch, he still asked the opinion from the other companions. He not selfless with making his own decisions. Through the story, the Prophet asked his companions opinion about an effective way to win the war. Prophet openness in accepting Salman’s opinion showing that his very concernded with opinions come from the Companions. It is an attitude that should be inherent in a leader self by open-minded attitude towards the opinions and suggestions from the others. In my opinion, today's leaders fewer taking cares the opinion of its citizens. Many leaders just do a decision based on what they only think. The ability of receiving and doing the things given less attention by leaders. This attitude shows a weakness of leadership that we have today. Leaders should emulate the Prophet Muhammad in doing the decisions by perform an in-depth discussion and take other people's opinions. Secondly, the attitude should be emulate through this event is the attitude of help to each other. According to this sirah, they shown us the great co-operation thay they had. As evidence, they were able to dug a big Trench within six days only. Just imagine a small number of troops could dug a big Trench. It must be done with the hard effort and help each other to complete the Trench. But if we look at today’s society, their helpful and working together are very less. They prefer to do the work alone without regards to others. This attitude causes them to disregard the lives of others even when others are in trouble.        Trench warfare's story has clearly demonstrated an attitude of co-operation and mutual assistance to each other that we should practice in current life. Lastly, a very good attitude shown at this event is the union between the Muslims and non-Muslims. Salman al-Farisi who had proposed to dug a Trench was not a Muslim during that time but the Prophet accepted his opinion. This war shows the union does not distinguish between religion. It is very different in today’s life where Muslims and non-Muslims like antagonistic to each other. We are supposed to be inculcate open-minded in accepting the opinion and suggestion from any parties. If such attitudes can be nurtured, necessarily add the life of the time of the Prophet can be emulated.

9.0 SUGGESTION OR CONCLUSION
As the conclusion, we are today must take the guidance from events that have happened in the period of the Prophet and the Companions. It is because the events during that times are complete guidence to be the best solution when practicing today. Through the event of the battle of Trench, we may be able to take a lot of lessons and ample solution. In abbreviation, the moral values from this event are, a leader shall be open-minded in receiving the opinion and suggestion from the others, we live in a community must help each other and work together, religion is not a factor for us to work separately and to get a success we must strive to hard that we may be. There are many of the positive attitude shown by the events of Trench either from a leader itself, a Muslim itself and the teamwork spirit. As suggestion, i would like to suggest for having related studies class about the Prophet’s sirah widely. This is because most of people currently doesn’t know really about the Prophet’s sirah. Through providing the related classess it will help people to know a bit about the biography of the Prophet and Companions. The communities will know the events that have occurred and will make it as an essential guide to solve the daily life problems.



[1])Retrieved from http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pertempuran_Khandaq, 3 May 2014, 5.05 pm.
[2])Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_the_Trench, 3 May 2014, 5.20 pm.
[3]) Mohd. Nor Long and Mohd. Puzhi Usop. 2002. Cahaya Abadi Riwayat Hidup Rasulullah SAW. Kuala Lumpur : Al-Hidayah Publication, Page 101.
[5]) Retrieved from http://www.haqislam.org/battle-of-the-trench/, 5 May 2014, 6.30 am.
[7])Retrieved from https://www.boundless.com/management/decision-making/decision-making-in-management/decision-making-styles-directive-analytical-conceptual-behavioral/, 5 May 2014, 8.45 am.
[8])Al-Quran al-Karim, Surah al-Ahzab.
[9]) Al-Quran al-Karim, Surah al-Ahzab.
[10]) Al-Quran al-Karim, Surah al-Ahzab.
[11]) Hisham M Taky Eldin Kandil and Adibah Sulaiman 2 Mohamad. 2014. Creative Thinking And Problem Solving. Negeri Sembilan : Anugerah Ilham Management & Services. Page 26.
[12]) ibid, Page 77.
[13]) ibid, Page 94

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