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Monday, July 7, 2014

CAUSES AND DISADVANTAGES OF EARLY MARRIAGE

ESSAY OUTLINE
Introduction :
Paraghraph 1 :
   Introduction of early marriage.
ü  Phenomenon of early marriage.
ü  Definition of early marriage.
ü  Statistic of early marriage.

Causes lead to the early marriage :
Paraghraph 2 :
   The most major reason lead to early marriage is poverty.
ü  Definition of poverty.
ü  Poverty most occured at rural country.
ü  Lacking of education causes from poverty.

Paraghraph 3 :
   Secondly reason for early marriage is to protecting girls.
ü  To reduce family burden and guarantee the comfort, convenience and amenities of life for a woman.
ü  Helps prevent premarital sex.

Paraghraph 4 :
   Thirdly, the reason lead to early marriage is lacking of education.
ü  Definition of education.
ü  Important of education.
ü  Early marriage always regard as the best solution to guarantee women’s life in future.


Disadvantages of early marriage :
Paraghraph 5 :

Denial of personal development and personal education

ü  Teens is the best time to have your own ideas and explore your life.

ü  The early marriages thus denies children of school age to their right of education.

ü  Early marriages induce the girls worked to earn their own livelihood.


Paraghraph 6 :

Issue of maturity levels

ü  Definition of maturity.

ü  Teenagers being irresponsible and immature sometime actions may be taken which can become serious issues and pitfalls.


           
Paraghraph 7 :
     Economical problems
ü  Coping up with financial responsibility.
ü  Lack of parental money support.

Conclusion :

Paraghraph 8 :
     Conclusion.
ü  Affirmation of early marriage.
ü  Early marriage in Islamic perspective.
ü  Overall conclusion.


INTRODUCTION           
            Throughout the world, marriage has always been regarded as the moment of the celebration and certainly a milestone in the life. Actually, marriage is a universal social institution through which an adult male and an adult female generally involves in marriage relationship and acquires new social status as husband and wife. But, such an important social institution brings some numerous problem to a couple especially women, when it happens at an early age. Early marriage is more frequent for female rather than male counterparts. Nowadays, early marriage become a trend and often practiced in our society life. The main question to be raised here is, what is early marriage? According to UNICEF, early marriage is defined as a formal marriage or informal union before age 18 for both boys and girls. However, in a broader interpretation, early marriage defined as ability to implement responsibilities after having a life partner. According to the International Centre for Research on Women (ICRW), in 2002, around 52 million girls below 18 years of age were married. With 25, 000 girls below 18 years married each day, an estimated 100 million girls will be married before the age 18 in the coming decade. Child marriage occur most frequently in South Asia, where 48% of women aged 15-24 have been married before age of 18, 42% for Africa and 29% for Latin America and the Carribean. Whereas, in Malaysia based on news report published by asiaonenews.com, “according to the 2000 Census, there were 11, 400 of early marriage cases was reported. Which is 6, 800 girls and 4, 600 boys”. This statistic shown that, currently the early marriage is most practically amongst teenageers. In addition too, nowadays early marriage might be regard as a trend. I prefer to choose this topic as my essay title because of several aspects. Such as, reasons lead to early marriage and disadvantages of early marriage.

CAUSES OF EARLY MARRIAGE
            The most major reason lead early marriage is poverty. The definition of poverty is focuses more on vulnerability and the social aspects of poverty and less on the economic dimension of poverty. Child marriage is most common in the world’s poorest countries and is often concentrated among the poorest households within those countries. It is closely linked with poverty and low levels of economic development. Many traditional settings, poor families use the early marriage of daughters as a strategy for reducing their own economic vulnerability, shifting the economic burden related to a daughter’s care to the husband’s family. Poor families may see a daughter as an economic burden to be shed through marriage as early as possible and may be seen as in her interests. Unfortunately, while this strategy may in some instances place the girl in a better-off family environment, in many cases the negative effects reinforce her vulnerability, and that of her children, to poverty in her marital home. The younger the age at the time of marriage, the lower the probability that girls will have acquired critical skills and developed their personal capacity to manage adverse situations that may affect their overall welfare and economic well-being. In families with limited resources, child marriage is often seen as a way to provide for their daughter’s future. But girls who marry young are more likely to be poor and remain poor. Poor countries and families have few resources to support more healthy alternatives for girls. Causes of the poverty problem, girls who are married early are often denied access to education or pulled out of school, diminishing the opportunity to acquire critical life skills which will enable them to escape poverty related conditions. Some parents even fear that formal education of girls will increase their bride price and so be a deterrent to prospective husbands. For a number of poorer families, the potential rewards of educating daughters are too far off and therefore their education is not recognized as an investment. Families perceive that a girl’s education will only benefit her husband’s household, and not her parents’. Prevailing gender norms on the roles of girls focus mainly on marriage, and as such it becomes acceptable to remove girls from school for marriage. In some cases girls are not even allowed to go to school at all, because an education is perceived as unnecessary for becoming wives or mothers. In general all children from poorer households are less likely to go to school. However, this is more so for girls than boys. This gender gap in educational enrolment is also more pronounced in rural communities. Early marriage is often linked to low levels of schooling for girls. Poverty lead to reason for early marriage because after getting marry, the responsibility to take care about girls’ life is husband. So that is the best way how parents resolve the financial burden.
            Secondly reason for early marriage is to protecting girls. Early marriage is one way to ensure that a wife is “protected”, or placed firmly under male control. Parental intention to marry off their children at early stage is a good intention which aims to give their children convenience of life. None of the parents are willing to see their children living in hardship. Husband is responsible for taking over the role of the father after the wedding to take care of his wife. Beside that, a husband also needs to provide basic needs such daily necessities of wife in day life. Early marriage mostly be seen occur for the low-income group families. In their opinion, early marriage is the best solution to reduce their financial burden because, they no longer need to think about the children who have marry. In the life of a poor family, the eldest often become the main target for getting marry at a young age. This is because, parents feel that they need to grown-up their young children and their responsibility is greater to the children who are still tiny. Grown-up children are considered as individuals who are good at carrying themselves each. One of the solutions to reduce the financial burden on families, parents marry off children who have grown up and do not have a job to someone else. From that, parents may genuinely feel that their daughter will be better off and safer with a regular male guardian and responsible. The husband might be provide a better life to a girl in each of life aspects. Such as provide education to the wife and completing her daily needs. From this, we can guess and portrays that early marriage can guarantee the comfort, convenience and amenities of life for a woman. Besides that, one of important impetus for marrying girls at an early age is that helps prevent premarital sex. According to the Preventing Early Pregnancy and Poor Reproductive Outcomes Among Adolescents In Developing Countries article, About 16 million adolescent girls give birth each year. Babies born to adolescent mothers account for roughly 11% of all births worldwide which is 95% occur in developing countries. WHO’s recommendations for reducing premarital sex is through early marriage. Many societies prize virginity before early marriage and this can manifest itself in a number of practices designed to “protect” a girl from unsanctioned sexual activity. In effect, they amount to strict controls imposed upon the girl herself. From this statement, clearly for us premarital sex will destroy the girl reputation and might be there will cause there is no a man who wants to marry her. Honestly, early marriage gives benefits to the life of a woman. Substantial probability that the life of a woman from a poor family would be vastly improved through early marriage.
            Thirdly, the reason lead to early marriage is lacking of education. According to the Wikipedia, education is defined as general sense is a form of learning in which knowledge, skills, and habits of a group of people are transferred from one generation to the next through teaching, training, research, or simply through autodidacticism. Generally, it occurs through any experience that has a formative effect on the way one thinks, feels, or acts. “Education is a better safeguard of liberty than a standing army.” said Edward Everette, the former US Secretary of State. Education is a power for getting perfect life. It helps individuals to be aware of their rights, to make rational decisions and to protect themselves against abuse and oppression. However, millions of people around the world are being denied access to education and the vast majority are women. Based on UNICEF, they believes for every 100 boys that are out of school, there are 115 girls in the same situation across the world. There are several deep rooted social and cultural norms that serve to exclude women from receiving an education. Lack of education has an impact through out a woman’s life cycle. The most obvious impression deal with the lack of education amongst women is getting early marriage. Why? Because the early marriage always regard as the best solution to guarantee women’s life in future. Those who are think with shortest way under the impression that early marriage will provide convenience life to women because all women will of and purposes it will be borne by the husband. However they not realize under the early marriage, their rights undermined or lost. The underminded rights such as, the right to an education, the right to be protected from physical and mental violence, injury or abuse, including sexual abuse, rape and sexual exploitation, the right to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health, the right to rest and leisure, and to participate freely in cultural life, the right to not be separated from parents against the child's will and the right to protection against all forms of exploitation affecting any aspect of the child’s welfare. Through this, clearly to us that early marriage can not guarantee a woman's life. Due to lack of education caused many person think that early marriage is the best solution. But the truth, early marriage has brought many problems. Just imagine if you have a great education, you will have a good position in your job and have a high salary. So no wonder, you will not fall into early marriage because you can support your own life. All your own needs you can fulfill it without need someone to support you. A great education lead you to think hardly for your future. For sure a person with a great education will not getting marry early because they want to pursue their ambitions. 
           
DISADVANTAGES OF EARLY MARRIAGE
            Nowadays, early marriage often regard as a trend amongst communities. However, in fact it bring many disadvantages. Firstly, early marriages thus inevitably deny the personal development and education. The problem is that while you are a teenager or a recent college graduate, you may have your own ideas and explore your life on your own which can thus be important part of the shaping in the character and the beliefs. It is often seen that while passing through our teenage years our ideals and goals thus change to an extent we could have never imagined and thus if you find yourself married at that point of time, no such personal development can thus take place and rather it gives you more responsibility at the early age and thus take away the relaxation and leisure. The early marriages thus denies children of school age to their right of education, the need for the personal development, preparation for the adulthood and the effective contribution to the future well being to the family. The interaction between number of years of girls schooling and postponement of the marriage is thus firmly established by the democratic and the fertility studies. Although the attitudes towards the education of the girls have been changed even in the traditional societies, many parents thus have a firm belief that investing in the education of a girl is of no use and thus not fruitful. The removal of the girl from the school to get married thus limits all her opportunities to thus develop her own intellect. The girl can thus lose out on the socialized networks, friends outside the family circle and certainly many useful skills. Her own identity is thus vanished and she thus becomes completely independent on her husband, more over the girl grows with no sense of right to thus assert any decisions and her point of view and thus the little experience in the articulating also. Lack of the self esteem and thus sense of ownership of the body can thus expose the woman to the unwanted pregnancy and thus make her vulnerable to certain diseases. Early marriages have also the effect and thus lack of schooling which thus means that the women and the girls who must have worked to earn their own livelihood have thus no skills and qualifications. The illiterate women who are thus divorced, widowed, abandoned or who are the victims of the growing poverty are thus forced into the commercialized versions of the work like cooking, cleaning and child minding, sometimes the commercial sex trade also. Where educational opportunities and work have thus opened for the women, it is the effect of the encouraging parents who thus support the daughter's education. The increased enrollment of the girls in the schools and the higher levels of the education completion have been thus conclusively shown to the improvements in the family as well as the society.
            Secondly, disadvantage of early marriage is lack of maturity levels or rather personal maturity. Based on definition from Wikipedia, in psychology, maturity is the ability to respond to the environment in an appropriate manner. This response is generally learned rather than instinctive, and is not determined by one's age. Maturity also encompasses being aware of the correct time and place to behave and knowing when to act appropriately, according to the circumstances and the culture of the society one lives in. Adult development and maturity theories include the purpose in life concept, in which maturity emphasizes a clear comprehension of life's purpose, directedness, and intentionality which, contributes to the feeling that life is meaningful. In fact, the most common disadvantage of getting early marriage is the problem with maturity level. Teenagers being irresponsible and immature sometimes actions may be taken which can become serious issues and pitfalls with in marriage bond. This is the reason why the courtship of several months should thus precede the marriage, since even most irresponsible and the self centered person could put on the good front for a few months. The keys to real personality of the young man include the kind of the things that thus make him angry and another is the way he treats his mother. While a man mistreats his mother, there are only rare exceptional cases the person might not misbehave with his wife and thus find equally plausible excuses for thus mistreating his wife. Another sign of irresponsibility and immaturity is that both the young women and young men is the lack of willingness to do the reasonable share of the work in a consistent manner, thus becoming more and more dependable and when this indifferent attitude is thus demonstrated before the marriage, it is likely to happen tht it will be followed and become worse after the marriages. The small differences and the petty arguments can rather turn in to the marriage deal breakers as the couples which can thus be still maturing and thus developing themselves as an individual. High school and college are thus so important in a person's life to make his or her own identity as an individual and shape your own character and thus the social problems in these situations can thus be carried in to the marriage. Lack of maturity is the main cause of increasing divorce rates among the Net-Generation marriages. The number of young marriages is on the rise currently. Most young people get married without any knowledge about how to maintain a functional family. In nutshell, divorce is the most common factor lead into divorce. This is because teenagers not really know how to guiding their maturity level mostly in controlling their emotion and perform their responsibilities to wife and their own family.
            Thirdly, set of problems in the early marriages is the economical problems. The economical problems thus include coping up with the financial responsibilities. The youngsters thus need to set up their own home and thus bear all the costs of the running house and thus taking care of their own family. It is general tend that they rather do not like to take help from the parents as they thus decide to venture on their own. It rather becomes difficult to thus bear out all financial expense at such early age, as they are not so educated to earn the lot of money. Thus marriages without the completion of the education have thus proved to be fatal and the costliest affair and thus tight financial situations can thus lead to the tensions in the relationships. Beside that, the economical problems thus, also include the problem of adequate financial support. Although the money does not buy the happiness, it is rather true that the tight financial condition can thus create tensions which thus can undermine the otherwise happy relationship. Some of the financial problems are always expected in a new marriage, it is thus important to think in a sensible manner so that the problems like these can be sorted out and thus create a beautiful relationship, if thus not undertaken prematurely. This is not suggesting that you can wait about the marriage until and unless every financial problem has been sorted out but rather it simply suggests that do not close the eyes in whatever real situation you are in, talk with the other young married couples who thus have been married for a few months and they might be having more realistic ideas of the financial problems. It is also a good idea that if the parents or the in laws are depended heavily for the financial support, it can lead to several other conflicts of the family as well. Thus regardless of good intentions involved, it is rather true that the person who thus earns the money or controls the money rather rules the situations. Although some of the newly married couples thus find it as a need to temporarily make their own home with their parents, this is generally not a true wise choice unless an absolute need is there and then also for the short span of time. The proverb which thus says that none of the house is thus large enough for the two women can thus also be applied to the other members of family as well and thus not only these type of agreements produce the family conflicts, lack of privacy factor also tends to thus make an early sexual adjustments which are rather much more difficult later on, thus creating an atmosphere which can thus lead to the far more serious problem in the later years. An early marriage still thus means that you can live with parents, but most of the young married couples want to set up their own family and home, thus combined effort of the general lack of education or rather higher education, the early marriages could thus have resulted in the financial difficulties while the spouses have to thus juggle working, education and marriage.

CONCLUSION
            As affirmation, each an incident has its own advantages and disadvantages which is determined from the cause itself. However, it is depends on us how we drive it towards the good things and reduce the disadvantages. Early marriage was able to bring benefit to each individual such as learn the responsibilities since young, to avoid from premarital sex and to more mature. In the teachings of Islam as well, early marriage is not forbidden and there is no evidence to justify. However, we must understand the Islamic teachings that allow for early marriage when we can not refrain from committing adultery. I do not assert that early marriage is harmful totally. But in many findings indicate that early marriage brings many problems in daily life. The main cause of all the problems in early marriage is maturity level amongst teenagers. Most teenagers act out of rational and more to emotional. This is also why the level of divorce among adolescents is increase. In the other hand, early marriages of the boys and the girls thus impair realization and enjoyment of the virtually every one's rights. The imposition of the marriage partner on the children or the adolescents who are thus no way ready for the married life and thus whose marriages will thus deprive them of the freedom, opportunities for the personal development and the other rights including the health and the well being, participation in the social and civic life and the education. It is thus hoped that an incentive will be provided to the people to thus prevent the early marriages and thus end the silent miseries of the millions of girls around the world to thus open up some new horizons for the girls and thus contribute to the development of the policies, the programmers and the advocacy. But in the present, early marriage is also as a best way to guarantee the lives of the children of poor income families. Early marriage is accepted differently for each individual. It just depends on how we will drive our life and marriage in the right way at a young age. We must be smart in play a role after marriage. Every problem that arises must be faced with patience. In my personal opinion, based on the article that I have read and results of studies on the internet that early marriage bring many disadvantages as compared to advantages, especially in facet of health, finance and education. Clearly, as long as we are fortunate we must avoid falling into early marriages because we are losing a lot of our rights when we are getting marry early. Planning now for a better life in the future.
  
REFFERENCES
Jeannete Bayisenge. “Early Marriages As Barrier To Girl’s Education: A Development   Challenge in Africa”. ifuw.org.< http://www.ifuw.org/fuwa/docs/Early-marriage.pdf>

n.a “The Effects Of Early Marriage (Cause and effect essay)”. 13  May 2004 .     WriteWork.com.   <http://www.writework.com/essay/effects-early-marriage-cause-   and-effect-essay>

n.a. “From Aid to Impact  Child Marriage : A Promise Of Poverty”. Care Action Now.             <http://www.care.org/campaigns/childmarriage/downloads/CAREAnti-   ChildMarriageAdvocacy.pdf>

n.a.      “Management The Early Marriages”. Oxbridge Writers.             <http://www.oxbridgewriters.com/essays/management/the-early-marriages.php>

n.a. “The Value of Early Marriage in Islam”(Originally from Nikah-Foundation.org).      Mutah.com. <http://www.mutah.com/earlymarriage/early.htm>

n.a. 16 May 2013. “Maturity(psychological)”. Wikipedia The Free Encylopedia.             <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maturity_(psychological)>

n.a. 21 December 2012.  Unicef.org. “Child protection from violence, exploitation and   abuse”. <http://www.unicef.org/protection/57929_58008.html>

n.a. 30 May 2013 . “Tradition”. Wikipedia The free Encylopedia.   <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tradition>.


Zubair Abdul Jabbar. 3 June 2010. “Benefits of Early Mariage and Its Islamic View”.    Oasiskerala.wordpress.com. <http://oasiskerala.wordpress.com/2010/06/03/benefits-      of-early-marriage-and-its-islamic-view/>

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